Daughter of Bahlul Lodi: Taj Murassa Begum aka Taj Bibi aka Subhan Begum

Taj Murassa Begum aka Taj Bibi aka Subhan Begum was the daughter of Bahlul Lodi and sister of mighty Sikandar Lodi

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Tomb of Mir-i-Miran, Sayyed Amir Ali, Sirhind Also known as Tomb of Bibi Subhan (Internet Photo)

The Tomb of Bibi Subhan aka Taj Murassa Begum aka Taj Bibi, is situated in Sirhind. It is said to be constructed most likely in the year 1497-98 A.D.
It is recorded that it was the tomb of Subhan Bibi. [Death on Friday, 11 of Safar 901 Hijri = 30 Oct. 1495 (at the time of Sikandar Lodi)].
Subhan Bibi was the Begum (wife) of Mir-i-Miran and daughter of Sultan Bahlol Lodi.
The stones with carved pillars and sculptures depicting animate motifs have been built in the dome, suggesting that the stones were appropriated from some ancient building.

There are two graves under the dome of the tomb. One is of Subhan Bibi (as recorded) and the second grave may be of her husband Mir-i-Miran.

Bahlul Lodi was crowned as Sultan at Sirhind. As a gesture of goodwill and obligation, he gifted a jagir to Mir-i-Miran and also gave his daughter in matrimony, as it was customary in those days for the Sultans and Kings to donate their daughters to the holy.

Sirhind Tomb is special in that it was built in the memory of a Muslim woman.

Tomb of Mir-i-Mran Sirhind: is located 5 kilometers away from Aam Khas Bagh and is connected by a link road. At the tomb, there are two sand stone inscriptions, out of which only one is legible. It reads: “Subhan daughter of Bahlol Lodi, who died on Friday, 11 of Safar 901 Hijri.” The other grave, there, it is conjectured, should be of Mir-i-Miran, Amir Sayyid, the son-in-law of the Sultan Bahlul Lodhi.
The tomb is built on a square platform. Its semicircular dome is supported by a eight sided neck. That has fluted pillars in the four cardinal directions.

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Tomb of Bahlul Lodi-Delhi (Internet Photo)

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Coins (Internet Photo)

Bahlul Lodi

In 1451, one night, Sultan Bahlol Lod camped at Maler on his way to conquer Delhi. It was a stormy night and the only lamp aflame was in the hut on the mound. Bahlol went to meet the man whose lamp the harsh winds could not extinguish. Sheikh Sardarud-din welcomed Bahlol into his hut and prophesied that Delhi would indeed be his. When Bahlol accomplished his mission (after conquering Delhi) the Sultan returned and in 1454 married his daughter Taj Murassa Begum to Sheikh Sardarud-din, and gave her a number of villages in the region as a marriage portion. The Sheikh and his Afghan wife had two children–a daughter, Bibi Mangi, and a son, Hassan. In 1458, Sheikh Sardarud-din also married the daughter of Rai Bahram Bhatti, the Rajput ruler of Kapurthala, a nearby principality, and had two more sons, ‘Isa and Musa’.

Bahlol Lodi (died 12 July 1489) was chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe   and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule.

Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451 (855 AH).

Early life

Bahlul’s grandfather, Malik Bahram, settled in Multan during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughluq and took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat.

Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan

In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan Mohammad Shah. As a payment he was granted a pargana and raised to the status of amir.

After the death of Malik Sultan, he became the governor of Sirhind. He was allowed to add Lahore to his charge. Once, Sultan Muhammad Shah asked for his help when the Malwa Sultan Mahmud Shah I invaded his territory.

Bahlul joined the imperial army with 20,000 mounted soldiers. By his cleverness, he was able to project himself as a victor over the army of the Malwa Sultan and Sultan Muhammad Shah conferred on him the title of Khan-i-Khanan. He also accepted Bahlul’s occupation over a large part of Punjab.

In 1443, Bahlul attacked Delhi but he did not succeed.

During the reign of last Sayyid ruler Sultan Alam Shah, Bahlul again made another unsuccessful attempt to capture Delhi in 1447. Finally, when Alam Shah retired to Badaun in 1448, a minister of Alam Shah, Hamid Khan invited him to occupy the throne of Delhi.

After the voluntary abdication of the throne by Alam Shah, Bahlul Shah ascended the throne of Delhi on 19 April 1451 and adopted the title of Bahlul Shah Ghazi. Alam Shah continued to live in Badaun till his death in July 1478.

The tomb of the founder of the Lodi dynasty lies close to the shrine of the noted Sufi saint, Nasiruddin Chirag-e-Delhi, in a locality that goes by his name, ‘Chirag Delhi’.

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Tomb of Bahlul Lodi at Chirag Delhi (Internet Photo)

After ascending to the throne, Bahlul decided to dispose of Hamid Khan.

His cousin and brother-in-law Malik Mahmud Khan alias Qutb-ud-din Khan (Governor of Samana) imprisoned Hamid Khan.

In 1486, he appointed his son, Babrak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur. In time, this proved to be problematic, as his second son, Nizam Khan (Sikandar Lodi) was named successor, and a power struggle ensued upon his death in 1489.

The Reign

After ascending to the throne, Bahlul decided to dispose of Hamid Khan. His cousin and brother-in-law Malik Mahmud Khan alias Qutb-ud-din Khan (Governor of Samana) imprisoned Hamid Khan.

In 1479, Sultan Bahlul Lodi defeated and annexed  Sharqi dynasty based at Jaunpur. Bahlul did much to stop rebellions and uprisings in his territories, and extended his holdings over  Gwalior Jaunpur  and upper Uttar Pradesh

Just like the previous Delhi Sultans, he kept Delhi the capital of his kingdom. In 1486, he appointed his son, Babrak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur. In time, this proved to be problematic, as his second son, Nizam Khan (Sikandar Lodi) was named successor, and a power struggle ensued upon his death in 1489.

Death

Buhlul Lodi died in l489, near the town of Jalali, 1489 after a long reign.His tomb is located adjacent to the shrine of the famous Sufi saint, Nasiruddin Chirag-e-Delhi, in Chirag Delhi area of South Delhi.

His tomb is a drab place compared to other mausoleums. It is a square chamber with three arched openings on all sides, surmounted by five domes, the central one being the biggest. Quranic verses are inscribed on the arches but there is hardly any other ornamentation.

Marriages
Bahlul married three times [and had 9 Sons (Known)]
  • · Shams Khatun, daughter of Malik Shah Sultan Lodhi, his first cousin.
  • · Bibi Ambha, daughter of a hindu goldsmith.
  • · Bibi Sitti Maghula, daughter of Malik Majhi Fath-mulk.

Founder of the Lodi dynasty,

Bahlul (also written as Buhlol, Bahlol and Buhlul) Khan Lodi was the founder of the Lodi dynasty, the last of the five dynasties, the combination of which is known as Delhi sultanate. The Lodis , who were Afghan by race, ruled for seventy five years from 1451-1526 till their last ruler Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur in the First battle of Panipat in 1526 resulting in the establishment of Mughal empire in India.

Buhlul Lodi ruled for long thirty-nine years (1451-89). He was the governor of Lahore and Sirhind during the rule of Muhammad Shah of Sayyid dynasty. In 1451, Buhlul was given the throne of Delhi on a platter by Muhammad’s son Ala-ud-din Alam Shah, the last of the Sayyids.

Characteristics of Bahlul Lodhi

i) Bahlol Lodi was one of the Afghan sardars who established himself in Punjab after invasion of Timur.

ii) He founded the Lodi dynasty. He founded the rule of the Lodhi dynasty by usurping the throne from the last of the Sayyid rulers.

iii) He was a strong and brave ruler. He tried to restore the glory of Delhi by conquering territories around Delhi and after continuous war for 26 years, he succeeded in extending his authority over Jaunpur, Rewail, Itawah, Mewar, Sambhal, and Gwalior etc.

iv) He was a kind and generous ruler. He was always prepared to help his subjects. Though he was himself illiterate, he extended his patronage to art and learning.

v) He died in 1488.

The Tomb of Subhan

The Tomb of Subhan, located near Dera Mir Miran in the Punjab state of India. Subhan was the daughter of Sultan Bahlul Lodi, who lived from 1451-89. Her tomb is a square building with a domed roof made of a type of blue sandstone not native to the Punjab region. The walls are decorated with glazed tiles and flower medallions.

Inscriptions on the building state the year of the death of Subhan, the dates of the monuments construction, and verses from the Quran. Stylistic differences between the Tomb of Subhan and contemporaneous tombs in Dehli are noted.

Tomb of Haj-o-Taj:

Close to Roza Taj Bibi tomb where the remains of Subhan, daughter of Behlol Lodhi lie are two mausoleums of two queens of some king whose names were Haj-Un-Nisa and Taj-Un-Nisa and hence the name of the mausoleums Haj-o-Taj.

About: Shaikh Sadr ud-din [Hazrat Shaikh] (1454 – 1508)

Shaikh Sardar ud-din [Haidar Shaikh], Rais of Maler. Born at Daraban, Afghanistan, 1437, elder son of Shaikh Ahmad Zinda Pir, eleventh in descent from Shah ‘Izz ud-din Husain I Ghori, Shahanshah of Persia.

Shaikh Sadr ud-din received the villages of Maler, Hadiya, Barnala, Phul, Mahraj, Longawal, Sankhera, Pail, Chumkaur, Amrgarh, Balian and Amloh in dowry, from the Sultan of Delhi, (Bahlul Lodhi) in 1454.

He founded the town of Maler, in 1461. He is also known as Sardar-i-Jahan (chief judicial officer) at the court of Delhi. Married (first) at Delhi, 1454, Taj Murassa Begum, daughter of Sultan Bahlol Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi. Thatn hr married (second) in 1458, Bhatianiji Begum, a Rajput lady from the family of Rai Bahram Bhatti [Kapura], of Kapurthala.

He died at Maler, 1508, having had issue, three sons and one daughter:
1) Shaikh ‘Isa, Rais of Maler (s/o Taj Murassa Begum).
2) Shaikh Hassan-born at Maler, 1475 (s/o Taj Murassa Begum). Disinherited by his father in 1508. He died before 1538.
3) Shaikh Musa. Born at Maler, 1483 (s/o Taj Murassa Begum). He d.s.p.v.p.
4) Hajjiah Bibi Mango. Born at Maler, 1471 (d/o Taj Murassa Begum). Married into an Afghan or Muslim Rajput family in Tohana, near Jakhal, in the Hissar district. She became a widow, five years after her marriage (burial Tohana).

Sikandar Lodi

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Sikander Lodi’s Mausoleum-Lodi Garden-Delhi (Internet Photo)

Sikander Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi from 1489 to 1517. He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489.

The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses. Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlul Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan.

Most of the time of Bahlul Lodi was spent in checking revolts and consolidating his position. There was very little left at his disposal for bringing about administrative reforms. Ibrahim Lodi led to the downfall of the Lodi dynasty.

As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters.

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi.

Occasional tours in disguise

Very often the Sultan toured in disguise to have the first hand information about the condition of the people and the activities of the Amirs and the Ulemas.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

Charcteristics of Sikandar Lodi

  • Sikandar Lodi was the son of Bahlol Lodi who conquered Bihar and Western Bengal.
  • He shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra, a city founded by him.
  • Sikandar was a fanatical Muslim and he broke the sacred images of the Jwalamukhi Temple at Naga Kot and ordered the temples of Mathura to be destroyed.
  • He took a keen interest in the development of agriculture. He introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
  • He was a staunch Sunni and a Muslim fanatic. He lacked religious tolerance. In the name of religion, he perpetuated untold cruelties on the Hindus.

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Maqbara Taj Bibi (Internet Photo)

Source:

Internet

e Books

Bahlol Lodi
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia

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