1. Shah Turkan w/o Shams-ud-din Iltutmish and m/o Rukn ud din Firuz-was a Turkish hand-maid, and the head [woman] of all the Sultan’s (Iltutmish’s) haram. She manipulated to prefix the title of Khudawand-i-Jahan to her name and rise to the position of the greatest [of the ladies] of the sublime haram, and her place of residence was the royal palace.
2. Wives of Alauddin Khilji
a. Malika-i- Jahan, wife of Alauddin Khalji, being the daughter of the king Jalaluddin Khilji, always tried to domineer over her husband. The sudden rise of her father had made her exceedingly vain. Alauddin refused to become hen pecked. Being disgusted with the behavior of his wife, he began to neglect her and she made this ground for saying many unpleasant things. This made matter worse. Jalaluddin’s wife tried to mind matters by brow- beating Alauddin which led to greater estrangement. Alauddin was wary of these ladies, life lost all charm for him, and he tended to grow indolent, insipid and dispirited. Her impudence greatly distressed Alauddin, but he was averse to bringing the disobedience of his wife to the notice of the Sultan.
Haji-ud-Dabir in Zafar-ul-walih elucidates the cause of misunderstanding between Alauddin and his consort. He says that the prince had two wives – one the daughter of the Sultan Jalaluddin Khalji, and the other Mahru, the sister of Malik Sanjar, later known as Alp Khan.
Jalaluddin’s daughter had no knowledge about the other marriage, but when she came to know about it, she began to fret out their private life. One day when the Sultan was sitting with Mahru in a garden when she suddenly appeared and enraged at the sight began to beat Maharu with her shoe. Alauddin could hardly bear this insult and became infuriated and attacked her with his sword. She however escaped luckily only with a few minor injuries.
b. Maharu-a sister of Alp Khan (previously known as Malik Sanjar)
c. Kamla Devi-Among the captives was one of the Rai’s wife, Rani Kamla Devi whom the Sultan married. Soon she won the Sultan’s affection by her beauty and devotion. Her daughter, Dewal Rani who was some seven- eight months old was brought to the royal harem. At the imperial court, the young daughter of Rai Karan was brought up with Khizr Khan the eldest son of the Sultan. And both of them fell in love with each other.
d. Badshah Begum
e. A daughter of Kaiquabad, known as Malka Mahik and mother of Mubarak
f. Princess of Deogiri (her son was Umar Khan)
3. Begum Makhduma Jahan–Wife of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq-Who went blind later during the rule of Mohammed bin Tughlaq (Ibn Batuta). She was one of those virtuous, benevolent and charitable ladies who left their mark as great philanthropists. She received envoys, guests at court and gave magnificent reception to them in the capital.
Ibn Battuta, the Moorish traveler was one of them, who saw her in her advance age. When he reached Delhi, She was present there with her wazir Khwaja-i- Jahan. She received gifts and presents from the guests and also distributed gifts to others with an open heart. She maintained a large number of hospices for the comfort of the travellers and endowed them to supply free food to all travellers. The foreigners who came to India to seek fortune were first extended hospitality on her behalf as guests. They were entertained with delicious food and then invested with silk robes of honour embroidered in gold. After it they were given unsewn fabrics of silk, linen and cotton,
A separate department was organized which kept an account of her gifts and grants.
Being a woman of charitable disposition, she maintained a number of hospices which were run by state exchequer. Her acts of charity were a boon for several families which survived merely because of her help.
During the time of transfer of the capital first of all the Sultan shifted his mother Makhduma-i- Jahan with the entire household of the amirs, maliks and courtiers and slaves along with treasure and the royal hidden wealth shifted to Deogiri. Afterwards the Sultan summoned all the Sayyids, Sheikh (mystics), ulama and grandees of Delhi.
The Sultan sought her able advice not only in the management of the royal household but also on various political issues. It was through her timely intervention that the marriage of Bibi Raasti, the daughter of sultan Mohammad Tughluq, was solemnized with Sheikh Fathullah bin Sheikh Auhaduddin Nagoari, the grandson of Baba Farid in 1327 A.D. at Daulatabad.
Mohammad Tughluq had great devotion and love for his mother, Makhduma-i- Jahan. On one occasion she went on a tour with the Sultan but he returned few days before. When she came back, the Sultan received her with great ceremony. He alighted from his horse and kissed her feet when she was in her palanquin.
Unfortunately she had lost her eyesight at the time of Mohammad Tughluq’s coronation. Though based on hearsay, the following account of Makhduma-i- Jahan, as given by Ibn Battuta gives an idea of the éclat and splendour with which the occasion was celebrated: But she had lost her eye sight, which came about in this way; when her son ascended the throne, all the ladies and the daughters of maliks and amirs, dressed in their best clothes, came to pay their respect. She was seated in on a golden throne studded with jewels. All of them bowed to her. Then suddenly she lost her eyesight. She was treated by various means but could not get her eyesight back.
In 1341 A.D., when the governor of Multan declared his independence, Mohammad Tughluq set off from Delhi to deal with him. On the way he heard about the death of his revered mother Makhduma-i- Jahan at Delhi. The Sultan was over powered with grief, but having made arrangements of the distribution of alms for the benefit of the departed soul of his mother, he started for Multan.
The tomb of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughluq which lies near the Tughluqabad fortress was built by Mohammad Tughluq over the grave of his father. Subsequently two other graves namely the grave of Makhduma-i- Jahan and that of Sultan Mohammad Tughluq himself were built in the premise.
According to another school of thought inside the mausoleum are three graves: The central one belongs to Ghiyasudin Tughlaq and the other two are believed to be those of his wife Begum Makhduma-i-Jahan and his second son Mahmud Khan, who died with him under the pavilion.
Tomb of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq and Ibn Batuta
4. Khudavandzada-Was the name of one of the Sisters of Muhammad bin Tughluq
A plot was formed in 1358 against the life of Firuz. His cousin. Khudavandzada and her husband arranged that the king should be assassinated by armed men on the occasion of the visit of the Sultan to their house.
However, the plot was frustrated by her son Davar Malik who was not in sympathy with the stepfather. He indicated to the Sultan by sings that his Life was in danger and thus caused him to leave before arrangements for his assassination were complete.
On returning to his palace, the Sultan ordered troops to surround the house and the men who would have murdered, the Sultan were arrested. Instead of hanging Khudavandzada, she was merely imprisoned and her wealth was confiscated. Her husband was also banished.
5. Bibi Raasti, the daughter of Sultan Mohammad Tughluq
6. Ladies of Timur’s Harem (Timur, Tarmashirin Khan, Emir Timur)had gone to see ” Qasr-i-Hazaar Sutoon”.
(From Humayun nama-Gulbadan Begum)
7. Buwā Begam-Mother of Sultān Ibrāhīm Lōdī After Ibrahim Lodhi;s death she was taken in Babar’s harem. She at¬tempted to poison Bābar in December, 1526. She was de¬ported from India, and that on her enforced journey to Kābul she drowned herself in the Indus.
8. Aq Begam Mīrān-shāhī-Āq Begam was a daughter of Abū-sa’īd Mīrān-shāhī and Khadīja. She was one of the several paternal aunts of Bābar who went to India at his invitation.She reached Āgra in October, 1528. She was probably present at Bābar’s death-bed.
9. Ātūn māmā-Maid of Bābar’s mother, Qutluq-nigār Khānam.
10. Khanzada Begum (1478–1545) a Timurid princess, elder sister of Emperor Babur (5 years elder). She was married thrice. Her husbands:
1. Shaybani Khan Uzbek
2. Sayyid Hada
3. Mahdi Khwaja
11. Fakhru-n-nisā-She was a daughter of Bābar and ‘Āyisha-sultān, and his first child, born when he was nineteen. She died when about a month old.
12. Ḥabība-sultān Begam Arghūn– mother of Bābar’s wife, Ma’ṣūma. Bābar gave her a name of affection, “Yanga”.
13. Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum (19 years younger to Humayun) Mother of Akbar
Hamida Banu Begum
14. Bega Begum aka Haji begum w/o Humayun-was also captured by Sher Shah Suri but she was a relative of babar and hence she may have been returned back with respect to Humayun.
15. Shaad Bibi-w/o Humayun-Sent back by Sher Shah Suri, no kids.
16. Chand Bibi-w/o Humayun-7 months pregnant and presumed dead in attack by Chausa.
17. Gunwar Bibi-w/o Humayun-Mother of Bakshi Bano.
18. Najib al nissa Begum-w/o Humayun-Mother of Baqt al nissa who lived with Mirza Hakim and supported him and died in 1608.
19. Machchuk Bibi-Mother of Mirza Hakim and Fakhru-n-nisā’ Begam Mīrān-shāhī who was wife of Abul Mali. Māh-chūchak Begam. She married Humāyūn in 1546. She had two sons, Muḥammad Hakīm (born 960H.—1553) and Farrūkh-fāl. Gul-badan says she had four daughters and then, with discrepancy frequently found in her writings, names three: Bakht-nisā’, Sakīna-bānū, and Amīna¬bānū. The name of the best-known of her girls, Fakhru-n-nisā’, is omitted. She was Sister of Bairām Oghlān and of Farīdūn Khān Kābulī.
She was murdered by Shāh Abū’l-ma’ālī in Kābul in 1564.
20. Gul-barg Begam Barlās-She married, first, Mīr Shāh Ḥusain Arghūn, in 930H. (1524). The alliance was not happy and a separation took place. She appears to have remarried Humāyūn at some time before the defeat at Chausa (1539). She was with him subsequently in Sind, and from there went with Sultānam to Makka previous to 1543. She was buried in Dihlī.
21. Amina Begam Miran-shahi-Daughter of Humayun and Mah-chuchak.
22. Bakhtu-n-nisa’ Begam-She was a daughter of Humāyūn and Māh-chūchak.
23. Sakīna-bānū Begam Mīrān-shāhī-Daughter of Humāyūn and Māh-chūchak; wife of Shāh Ghāzī Khān, son of Naqīb Khān Qazwīnī, a personal friend of Akbar.
24. Bakhshī-bānū Begam-She was a daughter of Humāyūn and of Gūnwar Bībī,when ten years old, she was betrothed by her father to Ibrāhīm, son of Sulaimān and Ḥaram. Ibrāhīm (b. 1534) was six years older than Bakhshī-bānū, and he was killed in 1560, leaving her a widow of twenty. In the same year she was given in marriage by Akbar to Mīrzā Sharafu-d-dīn Ḥusain Aḥrārī.
25. Aqiqa Sultan 8 year old daughter of Humayun and Bega Begum and Sister of Akbarshe was lost at Chausa on June 27th, 1539.
26. Jahān-sultān Begam– Probably a child of Humāyūn. She died in Kābul, aged two in 1547.
27. Māh-afroz Begam-She was a wife of Kāmrān and mother of Ḥājī Begam. Two of Kāmrān’s wives are not known by their personal names, Hazāra Begam and the daughter of Uncle ‘Alī Mīrzā Begchik. Māh-afroz may be one of these.
28. Lād-malik Turkomān-Wife of (1) Tāj Khān Sarangkhānī and (2) of Shīr Khān Sūr (1528-29).
29. Akbar married Heera Kumari (Mariam Zamani, mother of Jahangir).
30. Ruqaiya Begam Mīrān-shāhī-Daughter of Hindāl; first wife of Akbar; she died Jumāda I. 7th, 1035H. (January 19th, 1626), at the age of eighty-four. She had no children of her own, and she brought up Shāh-jahān. Mihru-n-nisā’ (Nūr-jahān) lived ‘unnoticed and rejected’ with her after the death of Shīr-afkan.
31. Salima Sultan Begum: After the murder of Bairām in 968H. Salīma-sultan was married by Akbar. She was probably a few years his senior.
Salima Sultan Begum
33. Māham anaga– Nurse of Akbar; wife of Nadīm kūka; mother of i) Bāqī and ii) Adham kūkas. Cf. iii) Bābū āghā.
Māham anaga with Akbar
34. Gul-barg, or – iẕar, or -rang, or -rukh Mīrān-shāhī– Daughter of Babar and mother of Salīma-sultān Begam (Wife of Akbar/Bairam Khan).
35. Gul-rukh Begam Mīrān-shāhī– Daughter of Kāmrān Mīrzā; wife of Ibrāhīm Ḥusain Mīrzā Bāyqrā; mother of Muzaffar Ḥusain who married Sultān Khānam, Akbar’s eldest daughter, and of Nūru-n-nisā’ who became a wife of Salīm (the Emperor Jahāngīr).
36. Fakhru-n-nisā’ anaga and māmā-Mother of Nadīm kūka; mother-in-law of his wife, Māham anaga.
(Humayun nama-Gulbadan Begum)
Jahangir and Noor Jahan
37. The list of Jehangir’s 15 wives. He had around 18- 20 wives
a. Man Bai – daughter of Bhagwan Das
b. Sahib Jamal daughter of Khwaja Hassan
c. A niece of Sahib Jamal
d. Jagat Gosain daughter of Mota Raja
e. A daughter of Rai Singh of Bikaner
f. Rajkumari Karmasi daughter of Raja Rao Keshav Rathore
g. Jagat Singh daughter of Amer
h. A daughter of Rawal Bhim brother of Raja Rai Kalyan Mal of Jaisalmer
i. Kanwal Rani daughter of King of Tibet
j. A daughter of Ram Chandra Bundela
k. Nur Unnisa Begum sister of Muzaffar Hussain
l. Sahila Banu daughter of Qasim Khan
m. A daughter of Mubaraq Chak of Kashmir
n. Nur Jahan
38. Nur Jahan-When Mahabat Khan took Jehangir/Shariyar/Dara Sikoh/Aurangzeb, Nur Jahan escaped and joined her daughter Ladli and her granddaughter on other side of river. Then Nur Jahan commanded a mughal force to rescue Jehangir/Shariyar etc. The attack failed and hence Nur Jahan surrendered with her daughter/granddaughter to Mahabat Khan. Mahabat Khan took Jehangir/Shariyar/Dara Sikoh/Aurangzeb hostage in Lahore in 1626.
Article compiled from various sources and also Humayun-Namah-By Gulbadan Begum