Some Facts of History-2

1. Where is the grave of Muhgal General Mahabat Khan aka Zamana Beg?

Prominent Mughal general and statesman, known for his coup against the Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1626. “Following his unsuccessful coup, Mahabat Khan fled to the Deccan.

There, Prince Khurram convinced him to surrender himself to Jahangir. However, with the death of Jahangir shortly thereafter in the October 1627, Mahabat Khan was able to go unpunished.

Upon Prince Khurram’s rise to the throne as Emperor Shah Jahan, Mahabat Khan was appointed governor of Ajmer.

He was later transferred to a post in the Deccan, where he died in 1634. His body was carried back to Delhi, where he was buried on the ground of the shrine of Qadam Sharif.

Upon his death, his eldest son, Mirza Amanullah, was awarded the title ‘Khan Zaman’, while his second son, Luhrasp, was granted his late father’s title, ‘Mahabat Khan’.



Mahabat Khan aka Zamana Beg

2. Another Anga



The photograph of the tomb of Dai Angah in Lahore was taken by H H Cole in 1884 for the Archaeological Survey of India.

Wife of a magistrate in Bikaner in Rajasthan, Dai Angah was wet nurse to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (r. 1628-57). Inscriptions give the date of construction as 1671. The single-storeyed tomb is brick built and faced in painted plaster and tile mosaics in colorful floral and geometric motifs.

Its square plan comprises a central domed chamber with eight further chambers surrounding it. There is a domed kiosk at each of the building’s four corners.


Recent picture of Dai Anga’s tomb

3. Tea house (Red Fort)

The so-called tea house is a structure located in the Red Fort of Delhi. The tea house dates back to the late Mughal period. The structure was altered and changed throughout the course of the time, losing its original appearance.

The tea house was the first palace on the north, constructed for the princes. It was close to the imperial enclosure. It was also known as the “princes’ quarter”, because it is said that this was one of the residences of the emperor’s sons and other members of the imperial family.

After the rebellion of 1857, the occupying British forces converted the palace into a meeting and amusement hall and named it “tea house”. In his 1919 book “Monuments of Delhi: lasting splendor of the great Mughals and others”, Maulvi Zafar Hassan mentioned the structure as a pavilion.


 Tea house (Red Fort)

4. Raisina Hills

The hillocks were flattened by blasting around Raisina Hill. This barren wilderness is where the capital of India, New Delhi, stands today.


Raisina Hills

5. Mango-shaped scent bottle Mid-17th century- Private collection Rock crystal with rubies and emeralds set in gold

H. 1 3⁄4 × W. 2 1⁄4 × D. 1 3⁄4 in. (4.5 × 5.7 × 4.5 cm) Carved out of rock crystal with grooves cut on the surface and inlaid with gold and gemstones, this diminutive scent bottle embodies the refined aesthetic of seventeenth-century Mughal India.

Likely to have been created during the reign of Shah Jahan, this bottle is an example of the high degree of perfection Mughal artists achieved during this period. It features a network of naturalistic scrollwork of vines in gold wire, with leaves and flowers inset with precious stones and set in high relief to provide the effect of a cage enclosing the crystal.

It is missing a stopper, which was probably made of enameled gold.


 Mango-shaped scent bottle Mid-17th century

6. Bahadur Shah II’s crown


Bahadur Shah II’s crown

c. 1825-50 (Source: British Library) (Windsor ref: RCIN67236). Royal Collection Trust /© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2012.

7. Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khana and Burhanpur

A 16th century Tota-Maina tale. Quamaruddin Falak, a historian,claims that this story is not a myth but a forgotten history. When Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khana, one of Akhbars navratnas, ruled Burhanpur in the 16th century, the region suffered a severe drought. Rahim then got a reservoir constructed on the top of a hill from where water was later brought to the city. It still exists.

But few know the role a Tota and Maina played in getting water to the city. They belonged to a seer called Hazrat Shah Mustaqbil. It was said that whoever went to the seer seeking water never returned empty-handed.

During the drought, Rahim went to him and the seer said he would set his birds free and they would guide him to water. The birds went to a hill and sat on a stone which suddenly caved in to reveal a hollow, full of water, adds Falak.

But the birds could not be found. Later, they were found dead, next to each other. When they were brought to the seer, he said that they preferred dying together than living in separate cages.

Impressed, Rahim got their graves built next to each another. Falak claims that this is a fact recorded by books, including one written by Sir Thomas Roe, a British ambassador who visited Burhanpur.


A 16th century Tota-Maina Grave

8. Garstin’s Folly

“Garstin’s Folly”-Patna, India. This stupa like building which looks like yin – yang from air is a domed granary built in 1786 by Captain John Garstin, at the order of Warren Hastings, who later became the first Governor-General of India.

This huge granary was constructed to cater for the needs of the British army which had faced lot of difficulty due to severe draught and acute famine from 1770 to 1780. Because of its shape the structure is known as Gol Ghar (Round House). It is pillar less with a base of 125 metres, height 29 metres and a wall of thickness of 3.6 metres at the base. There is an opening at the top for filling the dome with grains. It is provided with two spiral shaped staircases on the outer shell – one for going up and other for coming down – so that the labourers going up with the grain bags are not hindered by those returning from top after emptying their load.

At the time of its construction it was the highest structure in Patna. Sometimes the best designs come to a naught because of some oversight. So was the case with this structure.

The designer failed to perceive some proper way to take out the grain from the granary. The doors at the bottom were designed to open inwards with the result that as soon as some grain was poured in the doors won’t move and it was impractical to remove the grains from the opening at top.

The structure was therefore abandoned with its doors and the hole at the top sealed and it came to be known as “Garstin’s Folly”. With passage of time it fell into decay but was later renovated and is a tourist spot now which provides a great panoramic view of the city and the river Ganges flowing nearby.


9. Safdarjang’s Tomb

Safdarjang’s Tomb was built by an Abyssinian (Ethiopian) architect, Bilal Mohammed Khan at the cost of an exorbitant sum of Rs 3 lakhs. The tomb was built by Nawab of Awadh-Shuja-ud-Daula in 1753-54 AD for his father, Mirza Mukin Abul Mansur Khan ‘Safdarjung’.

Mirza Mukin Abul Mansur Khan was the wazir of emperor Ahmed Shah and Safdarjang was a title, which was either awarded to him by the king, or he assumed himself.


Tomb of Safdar Jung, Delhi, by Samuel Bourne c.1858-60


Safdarjang’s Tomb recent

10. The Bara-pula Bridge

An inscription seen on one of the arches provides evidence that the Bara-pula Bridge was constructed sometime between 1621 AD and 1622 AD by Mihr Banu Agha, who was the chief eunuch in the royal courts of Emperor Jahangir.

Measuring 14 metres wide and 195 metres long is situated just a kilometre east of Khan-Khanan’s Tomb and close to the Shrine of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia.


Barapula Old Image

Barapula The name ‘Bara’ which means ‘Twelve’ and ‘Pula’ which means ‘Piers’ originated from its structure which is made of twelve piers that support the bridge wherein each pier is surmounted by a tall minaret measuring 2 metres each. It is also adorned with eleven arched openings that reflect the typical architectural style of the Tughlaq Dynasty.


Barapula Recent Image

11. Quadam Shareef

Originally, Firoz Shah Tughluq (1309 – 1388) constructed the large rectangular tomb at its core for himself, and surrounded it with massive walls and impressive gates in typical Tughlaq style.

However, when his son Fateh Khan died in 1376, he repurposed the tomb to be used for his son. Also added was a stone with a foot print of Muhammad (the founder of Islam), which Firoz Shah had brought in from Mecca.


Dargah Qadam Sharif-Inner Tomb Complex

12. Marriage contract of the emperor Bahadur Shah II (Source British Library)

This document records the marriage of Bahadur Shah, aged 64, to the aristocratic 19-year-old Zinat Mahal. She remained his favourite wife and accompanied him in exile in 1859. It opens with the traditional Arabic formula and records that the marriage was performed legally with the consent of both parties.

The bridegroom promises a settlement of 1,500,000 rupees, one-third to be paid immediately and the rest at any time during their married life. The document includes Bahadur Shah’s signature and the seal of his oldest son, Mirza Dara Bakht Dated 23 Ramazan 1256 (18 November 1840) IO Islamic


Marriage contract of the emperor Bahadur Shah II

Sources: British, Library Internet

Posted in Historical Accounts | Leave a comment

Some Food Facts of History-1



1. Chandni Chowk and its Halwais’



Alas ! Ghantewala Halwai has closed down recently.

2. Taste the Mughlai Chaat of Shahjahanabad

Chaat has a tongue tingling zaika – a mixture of fruits and the genuine flavour of a mixture of potato pieces, firm seared bread, Dahi Bhalla, gram and tangy-salty flavors. The mixture is decorated with acrid home-made Indian crisp and saunth (dried ginger and tamarind sauce), natural green coriander leaves and yoghurt.


Notwithstanding, there are numerous other in vogue variants now-taste the Aloo Tikki in vogue variants.


Visit the famous the chaat shops. Shree Balaji Chaat Bhandar maybe the best and most well known chaatwallah in Chandni Chowk. Be absolotely spellbound by the Papdi Chaat with its liberal consideration of Kachaalu Chutney, Khasta Papdis and saunth.

Bishan Swaroop is one of the aforementioned jewels tucked away in the clamorous by-paths of Chandni Chowk which keeps the magic of a different time, a different taste.

Since 1923, this small small stall has relegated only three things: unbelievable Aloo Chaat, remarkable Aloo ke Kulle and mouth-watering Fruit Chaat.


Taste the bonafide chaat at Lala Babu Chaat Bhandar (Chandni Chowk,) with sublime Gol Gappe presented with a sort of Jal Jeera that is pressed with harad (a digestive), kachoris loaded down with potato and peas, Gobhi-Matar Samosas, Dahi Bhalla and Matar Paneer Tikki are the quickest-advertising things here.


Jugal Kishor Ramji Lal (23, Dujana House, Chawri Bazaar, Chandni Chowk) is best known for the Fruit Chaat that has a quintessential part of the intonations and sights of Chandni Chowk.


“Get the feel of The Moghuls who imported temperate fruits unavailable in Delhi’s climate such as peaches, plums, apricots, apples, grapes and pears from Kashmir”. (W. Darymple)

Despite the fact that they do offer an adaptation of Pao Bhaji and Aloo Tikki, its the Fruit Chaat that is the champ here.


Dahi Bhalla need not dependably be a part of chaat; it might be served as a chief dish as you will find at Natraj Dahi Bhalla. The delicacy called Dahi Bhalla is a rotisserie-urad dal dumpling covered in whipped curd. Frequently, it is streaked with chocolatebrown bands of sweet-acrid tamarind chutney. Pink pomegranate seeds sparkle in the folds of the curd. Natraj is near Bhai Mati Das Chowk at the turning to Chandni Chowk metro station.


Kachori, for the most part loaded down with beats and presented with potato curry, is a different delicacy that makes your mouth water. Jung Bahadur Kachori Wala (1104, Chhatta Madan Gopal, Chandni Chowk) is maybe the most extremely popular for its Urad Dal Kachori, which is presented with Aloo Subzi. This spot is doubtlessly worth the enterprise.


On the sweeter side, Rabdi Faluda is an unquestionable requirement. Besides the spot to have it is Giani di Hatti close to the Fatehpuri Mosque. It has now come to be a frozen yogurt parlor spend significant time in colorful flavors like Litchi and Bubblegum. Separated from standard desserts, they moreover serve milkshakes, apples and oranges shakes, frozen yogurt shakes and sundaes.


“Go Mughlai like the Moghuls who planted formal gardens of fruit trees over conquered territories and drank juices flavored with essences”.

“From the mountains, they brought down ice to keep their sherbets and desserts cool and palatable”.

“They say that when Babur, India’s first Mughal Emperor, looked about his newly conquered northern territories, he did not like it. Coming from a food-loving culture, Hindustan seemed to him a land stripped of romance”.

“He writes in The Baburnama, “There are no grapes, quality fruits, musk melons, candles”.

“Emperor Jahangir introduced Mango it to the courtly tables. “Of all the fruits,” he says, “I am particularly fond of mango.” (W. Daymple)

3. “Taste Biryani of the ‘Dum Pukht’ style like Shah Jahan did, having his diners on rich carpets”. (W. Daymple)

“The centre piece of the imperial spread was a dish of rice cooked with ghee, spices and meat. After their meals, they rinsed their hands with perfumed water poured from jugs held by servants.

Biryani is one such dish that was polished in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Emperors. The word biryani comes from the Persian birian. It is basically a dish of rice and meat, not unlike the pilaf.

Taste the same flavours of yore that were enhanced using exotic spices. The curry was made rich and smooth with cream and yogurt. Imperial cooks threw in spices like cloves, cinnamon and cardamom, and nuts such as cashews and almonds. The result was a fragrant, heady and flavourful dish fit for royalty”. (W. Daymple)


An example of biryani cooked in the Mughal dum pukht style.

5. Eat at a Dastarkhan
Begin the meals like the Mughals meals with pickles, freshly sliced ginger and lime.


Then behave like Mughal Emperors, with a dish of rice cooked with ghee, spices and meat: the pilaf.

image image


This would be accompanied by a huge variety of game bird, fish, lamb, venison and beef cooked in different styles.

images (11) images (10)

After their meals, they rinsed their hands with perfumed water poured from jugs held by servants.

Finally eat traditional of desserts, at the end of the meal.


Provided that you are intrigued by kulfi -a flavoured solidified pastry made of milk -step towards the Ajmeri Gate. The prominent name here is Siya Ram Nannumal Kulfiwale (629, Gali Lodan, Ajmeri Gate).

What you get here is kulfi as kulfi ought to be – evil, heavenly and wow-so-amazing!

Request any flavour -Kesar, Pista, Rose, Kewra, Banana, Mango, or Pomegranate.

A delicacy for kings… now sold by the roadside…………Called Chat-But an almost sweet dish…………………………………………………….


According to Old Delhi legend, Daulat (which means ‘wealth’) ki Chaat is made only during the cold winter nights (preferably by the light of a full moon) when gallons of sweetened milk are whisked for hours into a cloud which is then set by the dawn dew. The top layer is touched with saffron and decorated with vark (silver leaf) and by morning the Daulat ki Chaat is just solid enough to be spooned into plates and sprinkled with chopped pistachio nuts, khoya (condensed milk) and bhoora (unrefined sugar) before gradually collapsing in the heat of the day.

In its thaal (a wide metal platter) the Daulat ki Chaat looks like the soft meringue of Lemon Meringue Pie but the taste is altogether more ethereal – it dissolves instantly on the tongue, leaving behind the merest sensation of cream and sweetness. The balance of milky cloud, saffron, sugar and nuts is subtle and tantalising, almost not there – generally requiring a greedy second or third plateful to try and audit this gully-found glimpse of heaven.

If there’s one dish that sums up the magic and mystery of Old Delhi street food

it is Daulat ki Chaat.




The Mughals – Art and Culture by W. Darymple


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Noor Jahan-The Most Powerful Mughal Queen!

Mehrunnisa was born in 1577 CE in Kandahar. She was the daughter of a Persian fortune-seeker – Mirza Ghias Beg. He offered his services at Akbar’s court as an army commander and soon became the most powerful army chief and minister in the reign of Jahangir.

He was given the title of Itimad-ud-Daulah (Pillar of the State). His daughter was first given the title of Noor Mahal and then Noor Jahan (Light of the World), when she married Emperor Jahangir.

It is said that Noor Jahan was responsible for Shah Jahan’s ascendancy to the Mughal throne.


Noor Jahan-the wife of Emperor Jahangir, was certainly ‘destiny’s chosen child’ and wielded extraordinary power from inside the harem as Jahangir’s favorite queen. In his last years, Noor Jahan became the virtual ruler of the empire!

Her family, too, remained extremely powerful for more than 70 years of the Mughal era when her niece Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal) married Shah Jahan (Khurram) and became his beloved queen.

Shah Jahan (Khurram) is said to have built the world’s most beautiful monument of love – The Taj Mahal ?


The Mughal Period is said to be one of the most fascinating eras of India’s history in view of the many-splendored rule of some of India’s greatest emperors.

Whilst Akbar’s reign is counted among the four Grand Monarchies of the World by eminent historians, Jahangir’s reign is known for the power the Mughal ruler wielded over a vast empire. While Akbar built the empire and created a united India, Jahangir became known as the emperor who promoted all variety of art – painting, singing and gardening.

His love story with Noor Jahan, the widowed daughter of his chief army commander and minister Mirza Ghias Beg, is considered second only to that of the more famous Mumtaz Mahal and Emperor Shah Jahan. Hence, of course, Noor Jahan was instrumental in bringing her niece Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Banu Begum) to Jahangir’s court and later to bring about her marriage with Shah Jahan (Prince Khurram).

The coming of Noor Jahan into the court of Jahangir was one of the two most important developments of his early years. The second event was the rise of Khurram, Jahangir’s third son and favorite of his father.

Noor Jahan, daughter of Jahangir’s army chief, was earlier married to Ali Quli Istajlu the title of Sher Afghan. Was conferred to him by Jahangir for killing a tiger single handedly.

Sher Afghan Quli Khan, who was posted to Bengal by Jahangir. Sher Afghan Quli Khan died in Bengal in 1607 and Meherunnisa returned to Agra to her father as a widow of 30.

The famous Introduction-Jahangir and Meherunnisa (aka Noor Jahan)

The annual Meena Bazaar held by the royal women and wives of nobles at the Mughal court was an event initiated by Humayun and was meant to offer an opportunity for women to not only buy jewels and clothes but also to flirt in a controlled environment and have a good time.

Jahangir famously first met the beautiful Meherunnisa in 1611 at the annual Meena Bazaar, four years after she came to Agra as a widow. Jahangir, say historical records, fell madly in love with her because of her exquisite beauty and mastery over several arts. They were married within months and Meherunnisa was first given the title of Noor Mahal and then Noor Jahan (Light of the World).


Noor Jahan was the twentieth wife of the Jahangir, but she was said to be different from all Mughal women. She was an accomplished poetess, a garment and jewelry designer, a perfume maker, a connoisseur of carpets and art objects.

She was surprisingly also known as a skilled huntress of great prowess.

Records say that she could shoot tigers from a closed howdah on top of an elephant and once killed four tigers at one go.

It is said because of her scintillating beauty, she became the most prolific subject of portraits through the following century, though how the painters got access to her in the harem is still is not known!


An answer to this question is a life-size portrait of Nur-uddin Jahangir, who was so fond of luxury and opulence that he visualized his own power to be completely ‘global’. While he camped in Mandu in Madhya Pradesh in 1617, his favorite artist Abul Hasan worked for months to complete his most well-known portrait in which he held the golden globe of the earth and sat on a Portuguese style throne with wine glasses from China and Italy surrounding him. His head had a halo like the sun, to signify that he was Allah’s representative on earth.

This portrait – painted on fine cotton canvas – was auctioned recently (April 2011) in Britain Rs.10 crore!

The legend that surrounds this portrait also says that Abul Hasan was such a close confidante and favorite courtier of Emperor Jahangir that he was possibly allowed to paint portraits of Noor Jahan. Thus, while the emperor was camping in Mandu, Hasan also painted a portrait of Noor Jahan as a hunter!


With her father as the emperor’s powerful chief minister, Noor Jahan’s new status also increased. Her brother Asaf Khan too rose to high rank at the court. Hence the Itmad-ud-Daula family thus became an integral part of the royal court with access to all areas of the palace including the harem. They acquired unimaginable wealth and lived in a lavish lifestyle.

When Noor Jahan arranged the marriage of her niece Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal) with Prince Khurram (Shah Jahan) the bond between the two families became even stronger.

History says that the quartet – Mirza Ghias Beg, Noor Jehan, Asaf Khan and Prince Khurram – wielded so much power at Jahangir’s court that they almost ran the empire on their own terms. Noor Jahan, for instance, built the grand mausoleum for her father in Agra, very close to the Taj Mahal. Her marriage to Jahangir gave her unrestricted access to his wealth and knowledge.

But Jahangir was unfortunately addicted to alcohol and opium. Both his brothers Daniyal and Murad had died of these vices. The effects of Jahangir’s vices began to catch up with his health. And naturally, Noor Jahan became ‘the power behind the throne’ with her personality and expertise in court intrigues.

As Jahangir battled his addictions, Noor Jahan became one of the most powerful women to ever rule India with an iron hand. She ran the affairs of the state from the harem and every decision about the empire had to be taken only with her consent.


The result of her unlimited power was that her immediate family members were given valuable endowments and positions. She had successfully married her own daughter from her first marriage to Quli Khan – Ladli Begum – to Prince Shahriyar, the fourth son of Jahangir by a royal concubine.

Through Jahangir’s reign, as the favorite queen of the emperor, Noor Jahan already wielded a great deal of real power in affairs of state. The Mughal Empire bestowed absolute power upon the emperor. Thus, his close confidantes, who could influence him, also became extremely powerful. Noor Jahan held absolute power.

Jahangir’s addiction to opium and alcohol made it easier for her to widen her influence greatly. For several years – especially the last years of Jahangir– she held complete imperial power and was recognized as the real force behind the Mughal throne. She even gave audiences in her palace and the ministers consulted with her on most matters of state and finance. Indeed, Jahangir even permitted coinage to be struck in her name, confirming her sovereignty.


In 1626, Jahangir was captured by rebels while he was travelling to Kashmir. Noor Jahan – through her negotiating skills – got her husband released and Jahangir had a temporary respite from his troubles.

Do read: A Coup during Mughul Era-an Empress rescues an Emperor

Jahangir was trying to restore his health by visiting Kashmir and Kabul. He went from Kabul to Kashmir but returned to Lahore on account of a severe cold.

Jahangir died on the way back from Kashmir near Sarai Saadabad on October 28, 1627.

To preserve his body, the entrails were removed and buried in the Baghsar Fort, Kashmir. The body was then transferred to Lahore to be buried in Shahdara Bagh, a suburb of Lahore, Punjab. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram who took the title of Shah Jahan. Jahangir’s elegant mausoleum is located in the Shahdara locale of Lahore and is a popular tourist attraction in Lahore.

After Jahangir’s death, Noor Jahan devoted her life to rebuild her power at the court but was sent by Shah Jahan to retire in a comfortable mansion where she lived till her death. She devoted her last years to building some of best Mughal tombs and to the making of perfumes from roses, an art she had learnt from her mother-Asmat Begam . She supervised the building of her father’s tomb in Agra, just a few kilometers from the Taj Mahal.


When Jahangir died in 1627, he was buried in Shahadara Bagh in Lahore and this imposing tomb too, bears the imprint of Noor Jahan’s talent and style. The tomb has beautiful gardens and wooded walks around, which were personally designed and laid out by Noor Jahan herself.


Noor Jahan died in 1645 at the age of 68, and was also buried in Shahadara Bagh in Lahore, now in Pakistan. As one of strongest women of the Mughal era, she built her own tomb near that of her husband Jahangir, because of whom, she held unparalleled power throughout her life.


All images from Internet

Text from Internet sources and Books

Posted in Historical Accounts | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Where History Gets Murky

i) Tomb of Razia- Where is she really buried?


a. Bulbulikhana Turkman Gate Delhi


b) Kaithal?


c) Tonk

According to a recent claim that she and her African slave paramour are buried at Tonk in Rajsthan where her father Iltumish had laid a siege The controversy arose after Sayed Sadique Ali, an Urdu lecturer at the local government post-graduate college claimed that the graves at the site are that of Razia and her trusted slave, Yaqut. He based his findings on the calligraphic Arabic script deciphered by the pattern of stones of irregular shapes affixed around the graves. The stones convey a particular message which, according to him, is: “Shahide Muhabbat Quvvatul-Mulk Jamaluddin Yaqut” around the smaller grave, and on the main grave, situated at a higher level, it reads: “Sultanul Hind Razia.”

ii) Sultan Ghari is the tomb of which Nasruddin? Eldest Son or Grand Son or youngest Son of Iltutmish?


iii) Grave of Maham Anga? Is she really buried in Adham Khan’s Tomb?


iv) Quli Khan son of Maham Anga?

Quli Khan is supposed to be the Son of Maham Anga, but his reference is not made any where in association with Maham Anga


vi) Maham Anga-Nurse of Akbar; wife of Nadīm kūka; mother of i) Bāqī and ii) Adham kūkas. Cf. iii) Bābū āghā. (Fakhru-n-nisā’ anaga aws the mother of Nadīm kūka).


Detail showing Maham Anga, Akbar’s foster mother, from the Akbarnama c1590, V&A Museum

vii) Why is grave of Khan Shahid in Balbans tomb?



x) Where is Balban’s grave. The Tomb is empty


xi) Who all are buried in Ghiyasudin Tughlaqs grave? Mahmood Khan his IInd Son who was killed with him in Kara . Or Mohd Bin Tughlaq?


Posted in Historical Accounts | Leave a comment

Maqbara Paik

A day well spent My heritage trip of Saturday-14 March 2015…………………………….

Maqbara Paik, Karnal by-pass, New Delhi

Wonder who this Paik was? All we know that he was a Paik (Messenger) in early Mughal times as the monument dates to Lodhi period.


Was this Paik special? Or did he pass away after delivering a very important message?

IMG01817-20150314-1242 Maqbara Paik

All said and done, if a tomb is built for a Paik (there were thousands) then he must be important.


The tomb has four perforations on all four sides of the tomb, that let in light to the crypt and also smaller perforations all long the narrow winding staircase leading to the top of the tomb to let in air and light perhaps.


But what is intriguing is that, now a days owing to restoration the floor of where the cenotaph might have been and same floor forming the roof of the crypt has been demolished by the restorers. As a consequence the crypt is fully illuminated with sunlight flooding in through the gaping hole that was one the roof.

The large solitary chadar covered grave of the Paik can be seen from the openings on all four sides.

Paiks grave is also venerated as one could see oil lamps (diyas) incense sticks and even a bundle of notes! tucked on the handle of the locked main door of the crypt!

No one dares to steal the bundle of notes, perhaps fearing the wrath of Paik’s rooh!!!

Posted in Travelogue | Leave a comment

Roshnara Bagh

We all know the background of Roshnara Bagh.

But today I saw the ‘Mahal of Roshnara’ converted into a School-“Sarvoday Bal Vidyalaya” and perhaps put to right use, rather than to let ‘Mahal of Roshnara’ decay into oblivion.

The Punjabi Gate and Baradari of Roshnara where her grave is there, her pools and canal have all turned into a major garbage dumping ground. The path too is infested with n number of Rodent Burrows.

Wonder if Roshnara Club: (of British times-commenced in 1922) One of the most elite clubs in Delhi, has any semblance to its namesake Roshnara…..

Roshanara Garden is a Mughal-style garden built by Roshanara Begum, the second daughter of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. Today the garden holds a white marble pavilion built in memory of the princess Roshanara, who died in 1671 and was buried there.



‘Mahal of Roshnara’ converted into a School-“Sarvoday Bal Vidyalaya”

Punjabi Gate

Baradari of Roshnara


Grave of Roshnara

Do read:

Shahzadi Roshanara Begum

Posted in Travelogue | Leave a comment

Sunheri Masjid (Near Qila i Mualla)

We all know the background of the Masjid.

Mazaar of Mai Sahab aka Shahzadi, at the back of Sunheri Masjid .

But what was intriguing, was that the old sweepress outside the Masjid, said: “do not forget to visit the Mazaar of Mai Sahab aka Shahzadi” !!! At the back of the Mosque there was a Mazaar. According to the mullah, that small mazaar behind the mosque marks Qudsia Begum’s grave !!! Wonder whose grave is it? It is a Ladies Mazaar, well venerated and it is believed that ‘Mai Sahab’ fulfills wishes if visited every Friday for 7 Fridays. So, on the 7th Friday we have to ‘chadao a chador’.

Sunehri Masjid

One of three mosques called Sunehri Masjid, ‘golden mosque’, this small mosque stands near the Delhi gate of Red Fort. It was constructed in 1751 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah. The persons responsible for its construction were Qudsia Begam, the mother of the emperor and the real power behind the throne; and her trusted courtier Javed Khan. This mosque was used mainly by the Mughal royal family, and after the suppression of the Revolt of 1857, passed into Army control, together with the Red Fort and the area around it. The structure gets its name from the fact that originally its three domes were covered with copper gilt mounted on a wooden base. Since these had become much weathered and worn, Bahadur Shah II in 1852 had the domes repaired in sandstone instead.

Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan, father of the Nawab of Firozpur, repaired the mosque to benefit the neighborhood. Not long after its renovation, Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan was attacked by an infuriated elephant while out with his son. His horse was killed in the attack, and his vehicle was destroyed. The Nawab and his son were only saved from death by taking refuge inside this mosque.

Images:                                                                                                      IMG01948-20150328-1453 Sunheri Masjid


The gate to Sunheri Masjid

Mazaar of Mai Sahab aka Shahzadi, at the back of the Mosque

Do read:

Qudsia Begum-The Tale of an Empress, in Fame and Notoriety.…/

Posted in Travelogue | Leave a comment

Interesting Facts of History-Assorted (3)

i) Sultan Mahmud of Gujarat is exemplary in maintaining peaceful atmosphere in the seragalio, according to his rules any lady who laughed at or derided the other, both were killed.

ii) An interesting aspect of harem life of the Delhi Sultans was that, in order to strengthen their position, they established matrimonial relations with the royal family. Some significant examples are:

a) Daughter of Qutbuddin Aibak was married to Iltutmish;

b) A daughter of Iltutmish was married to Balban;

c) Altunia married Raziya;

d) Balban gave one of his daughters in marriage to Nasiruddin Mahmud;

e) A daughter of Malik Chajju was married to Kaiqubad;

f) A daughter of Kaiqubad was married to Alauddin Khalji;

g) A daughter of Sultan Jalaluddin Khalji was married to Alauddin Khalji;

h) A daughter of Alauddin Khalji was married to Ghiyasuddin Tughluq;

i) A daughter of Mubarak Khalji was married to Firozshah Tughluq and

j) A daughter of Sultan Muhammad of the Syed dynasty was married to Mahmud Sharqi.

iii) Ruknuddin (Son of Iltutmish and Brother of Razia Sultan) was arrested from Kilugarhi and was imprisoned and put to death in Nov. 1236 A.D. He had ruled for only six months and twenty eight days. Age at Death-25 years old.

iv) Nasiruddun Shah named after Father?

A man of pious disposition, Nasiruddin Mahmud (rule 1246-66) was a grandson of Iltutmish.

According to some experts, he was the youngest son of Iltutmish. He succeeded Alauddin Masud Shah to the throne of Slave Dynasty at the age of sixteen.

Nasiruddin Mahmud was ill-qualified to rule. A puppet in the hands of his courtiers, he was married to the daughter of Ghiyasuddin Balban, one of the leading Turkish nobles. In reciprocation to this Balban was appointed to the post of regent (naib-i-mamlakat) and was conferred with the title of Ulugh Khan (premier Khan) by the Sultan.

Except for a brief period (1253-55) when some nobles opposed to Balban instigated Nasiruddin to exile him, Balban was the de facto ruler of the Delhi Sultanate during the Sultan’s reign.

Nasiruddin Mahmud died in 1266. Since he had no male heirs, he designated Balban to be the Sultan. The fourteenth century historian Isami as well as African traveller Ibn Batuta clearly mention that Nasiruddin was murdered by Balban. However, Yayiha bin Ahmad Sarhindi does not accuse Balban of regicide and according to him, Nasiruddin Mahmud died a natural death.

At Sultangarhi – the grave of Nasrudin is venerated. Which Nasirudin? The warrior son of Iltutmish or the Grandson or youngest son of Illtutmish?

Posted in Old Historical Records | Leave a comment

Sultan Garhi-A Tomb that Leaves People Wondering……


Sultan Garhi


Sultan Garhi-The Tomb

Nasir ud din Mahmud, Nasir ud din Firuz Shah (1246–1266) was the eighth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave dynasty). He was the son of Nasiruddin Mahmud (died-1229). He was named after his father; by Shams ud din Iltutmish, for he had grown an intense filial attachment, to the only begot son of his posthumous child. He succeeded Alauddin Masud Shah to the throne of Slave Dynasty at the age of sixteen, after the chiefs replaced Masud when they felt that he began to behave as a tyrant.

Nasiruddin Mahmud (rule 1246-66) – A Man of Pious Disposition

A man of pious disposition, Nasiruddin Mahmud (rule 1246-66) was a grandson of Iltutmish. According to some experts, he was the youngest son of Iltutmish.

Unlike many of his predecessors and successors, Mahmud strictly followed monogamy. He spent most of his times writing down verses of Quran. He sold the handwritten copies and used the money for his personal expenses. Surprising enough, he had no servants to carry out his personal tasks. His wife had to cook the food for the family.

As a ruler, Mahmud was known to be very religious, spending most of his time in prayer and renowned for aiding the poor and the distressed.

A Poor Ruler

Nasiruddin Mahmud was ill-qualified to rule. A puppet in the hands of his courtiers, he was married to the daughter of Ghiyasuddin Balban, one of the leading Turkish nobles. In reciprocation to this Balban was appointed to the post of regent (naib-i-mamlakat) and was conferred with the title of Ulugh Khan (premier Khan) by the Sultan. Actually his father-in-law and Deputy Sultan or Naib, Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266–1287), who primarily dealt with the state affairs, rose to power after Mahmud’s death in 1266  as Mahmud had no children to be his heir. 

The fighter-Prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud (d. 1229)


The fighter-Prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud (1229)

(Eldest Son of Illtutmish and Crown Prince)

Except for a brief period (1253-55) when some nobles opposed to Balban instigated Nasiruddin to exile him, Balban was the de facto ruler of the Delhi Sultanate during the Sultan’s reign. Nasiruddin Mahmud died in 1266. Since he had no male heirs, he designated Balban to be the Sultan. The fourteenth century historian Isami as well as African traveller Ibn Batuta clearly mention that Nasiruddin was murdered by Balban. However, Yayiha bin Ahmad Sarhindi does not accuse Balban of regicide and according to him, Nasiruddin Mahmud died a natural death.

That was about Nasiruddin Mahmud.

Let us now talk about how the events took a turn:

Iltumish, ruling from Delhi since 1210 AD, invaded eastern India in 1225 AD to capture Lakhnauti (now a ruined city in West Bengal called Gaur). The resultant battle ended in signing of a treaty between Izaz, the then ruler of Eastern India (Bihar and Bengal) and Iltumish; the former ruler agreeing to pay a surety of 80 lakh tankas (silver currency), 38 elephants, mint and issue of coins in the name of Iltumish and accepting Sultan’s suzerainty over the region. Before returning to Delhi, Iltumish divided the region into Bihar and Lakhnauti, and installed Alauddin masud jani as his feudatory in Lakhnauti. But Jani’s control was short lived as he was overthrown by Iwaz soon after Iltumish’s departure.

Thereafter, Iltutmish deputed his eldest son prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud to fight Iwaz. In the battle which took place near Lakhnauti, Iwaz was trounced and executed in 1227 AD, along with his nobles. Prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud, who was then appointed as governor of Lakhnauti province, merged his original province of Oudh with Bengal and Bihar, and established his capital at Lakhnauti. This act of his, coupled with the fact that he was son of Iltumish enhanced his prestige in the province. As a reward, he was given the honorific title of ‘Malik-us-Sharq’ (king of the East) by Iltutmish. His rule was short lived, eventful and he could consolidate his territory. But after a rule of 18 months, Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud was killed.

Sultangarhi-The tomb

Immensely grieved by the death of his favorite eldest son, Iltumish built a tomb called the Sultan Ghari in memory of his son, in 1231 AD, close to the Qutb complex.



Mahmud’s fortified tomb built by Iltutmish, known as Sultan Ghari, lies in the Vasant Kunj area, close to Mehrauli, in New Delhi. Built in1231 AD, it was the first Islamic Mausoleum built in India. The octagonal tomb chamber, is one of finest examples of Mamluk dynasty architecture, which also include the Qutub Minar.


Swastik on the Tomb Wall

The tomb is a revered place for devotees of both Hindu and Muslim religious communities of the nearby villages of Mahipalpur and Rangpuri since they consider the tomb as the Dargah of a saintly ‘peer’; a visit to the tomb is more or less mandatory for newlyweds from these two villages. Because of the religious veneration, the monument is maintained better by the local people than the Archaeological Survey of India who are the formal custodians to maintain the heritage structure.



Long Corridors of the Tomb on either side of the Mihrab


Tomb Wall Upstairs


Tomb Wall Downstairs


Funerary Chhatri of other brothers of Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud (d. 1229)


Entrance to the Crypt and Grave

Thursday is a special day for worship at this tomb when devotees, both Hindus and Muslims, visit the shrine, which represents a festive display of Hindu – Muslim syncretism of religious tolerance. Every year, on the 17th day of the Islamic month of Ziqad (month occurring between Ramadan and Eid festivals), the “Urs (death anniversary) of Nasiruddin Shah” is held when pilgrims from all parts of Delhi visit the tomb.

The historical confusion – Whose tomb is Sultan Garhi?

Is it the tomb of prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud (Eldest Son and Crown Prince)-The fighter or is it the tomb of Nasir ud din Mahmud, Nasir ud din Firuz Shah (1246–1266) was the eighth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave dynasty). He was the son of Nasiruddin Mahmud (died-1229). He was named after his father, by Shams ud din Iltutmish, for he had grown an intense filial attachment, to the only begot son of his posthumous child.

The tomb is a revered place for devotees of both Hindu and Muslim religious communities and, Nasiruddin Mahmud (rule 1246-66) son of Nasiruddin Mahmud (died-1229) and named after his father, by Shams ud din Iltutmish, his grandfather, was known to be a man of pious disposition.

So, is it the tomb of the pious prince or the fighter prince (his father)?


Compiled article.

For further details do read:

i) Breezes that Blow from Sultan Garhi and Beyond…..

ii) Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban-A Pining Father

iii) Sultan Shams-ud-din Iltutmish

Posted in Historical Accounts | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Interesting Facts of History-Assorted (2) – Famous Wives, Daughters and Sisters of Important Historical Figures

1. Shah Turkan w/o Shams-ud-din Iltutmish and m/o Rukn ud din Firuz-was a Turkish hand-maid, and the head [woman] of all the Sultan’s (Iltutmish’s) haram. She manipulated to prefix the title of Khudawand-i-Jahan to her name and rise to the position of the greatest [of the ladies] of the sublime haram, and her place of residence was the royal palace.


Shah Turkan

2. Wives of Alauddin Khilji


Alauddin Khilji

a. Malika-i- Jahan, wife of Alauddin Khalji, being the daughter of the king Jalaluddin Khilji, always tried to domineer over her husband. The sudden rise of her father had made her exceedingly vain. Alauddin refused to become hen pecked. Being disgusted with the behavior of his wife, he began to neglect her and she made this ground for saying many unpleasant things. This made matter worse. Jalaluddin’s wife tried to mind matters by brow- beating Alauddin which led to greater estrangement. Alauddin was wary of these ladies, life lost all charm for him, and he tended to grow indolent, insipid and dispirited. Her impudence greatly distressed Alauddin, but he was averse to bringing the disobedience of his wife to the notice of the Sultan.

Haji-ud-Dabir in Zafar-ul-walih elucidates the cause of misunderstanding between Alauddin and his consort. He says that the prince had two wives – one the daughter of the Sultan Jalaluddin Khalji, and the other Mahru, the sister of Malik Sanjar, later known as Alp Khan.

Jalaluddin’s daughter had no knowledge about the other marriage, but when she came to know about it, she began to fret out their private life. One day when the Sultan was sitting with Mahru in a garden when she suddenly appeared and enraged at the sight began to beat Maharu with her shoe. Alauddin could hardly bear this insult and became infuriated and attacked her with his sword. She however escaped luckily only with a few minor injuries.

b. Maharu-a sister of Alp Khan (previously known as Malik Sanjar)

c. Kamla Devi-Among the captives was one of the Rai’s wife, Rani Kamla Devi whom the Sultan married. Soon she won the Sultan’s affection by her beauty and devotion. Her daughter, Dewal Rani who was some seven- eight months old was brought to the royal harem. At the imperial court, the young daughter of Rai Karan was brought up with Khizr Khan the eldest son of the Sultan. And both of them fell in love with each other.

d. Badshah Begum

e. A daughter of Kaiquabad, known as Malka Mahik and mother of Mubarak

f. Princess of Deogiri (her son was Umar Khan)

3. Begum Makhduma JahanWife of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq-Who went blind later during the rule of Mohammed bin Tughlaq (Ibn Batuta). She was one of those virtuous, benevolent and charitable ladies who left their mark as great philanthropists. She received envoys, guests at court and gave magnificent reception to them in the capital.

Ibn Battuta, the Moorish traveler was one of them, who saw her in her advance age. When he reached Delhi, She was present there with her wazir Khwaja-i- Jahan. She received gifts and presents from the guests and also distributed gifts to others with an open heart. She maintained a large number of hospices for the comfort of the travellers and endowed them to supply free food to all travellers. The foreigners who came to India to seek fortune were first extended hospitality on her behalf as guests. They were entertained with delicious food and then invested with silk robes of honour embroidered in gold. After it they were given unsewn fabrics of silk, linen and cotton,

A separate department was organized which kept an account of her gifts and grants.

Being a woman of charitable disposition, she maintained a number of hospices which were run by state exchequer. Her acts of charity were a boon for several families which survived merely because of her help.

During the time of transfer of the capital first of all the Sultan shifted his mother Makhduma-i- Jahan with the entire household of the amirs, maliks and courtiers and slaves along with treasure and the royal hidden wealth shifted to Deogiri. Afterwards the Sultan summoned all the Sayyids, Sheikh (mystics), ulama and grandees of Delhi.

The Sultan sought her able advice not only in the management of the royal household but also on various political issues. It was through her timely intervention that the marriage of Bibi Raasti, the daughter of sultan Mohammad Tughluq, was solemnized with Sheikh Fathullah bin Sheikh Auhaduddin Nagoari, the grandson of Baba Farid in 1327 A.D. at Daulatabad.

Mohammad Tughluq had great devotion and love for his mother, Makhduma-i- Jahan. On one occasion she went on a tour with the Sultan but he returned few days before. When she came back, the Sultan received her with great ceremony. He alighted from his horse and kissed her feet when she was in her palanquin.

Unfortunately she had lost her eyesight at the time of Mohammad Tughluq’s coronation. Though based on hearsay, the following account of Makhduma-i- Jahan, as given by Ibn Battuta gives an idea of the éclat and splendour with which the occasion was celebrated: But she had lost her eye sight, which came about in this way; when her son ascended the throne, all the ladies and the daughters of maliks and amirs, dressed in their best clothes, came to pay their respect. She was seated in on a golden throne studded with jewels. All of them bowed to her. Then suddenly she lost her eyesight. She was treated by various means but could not get her eyesight back.

In 1341 A.D., when the governor of Multan declared his independence, Mohammad Tughluq set off from Delhi to deal with him. On the way he heard about the death of his revered mother Makhduma-i- Jahan at Delhi. The Sultan was over powered with grief, but having made arrangements of the distribution of alms for the benefit of the departed soul of his mother, he started for Multan.

The tomb of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughluq which lies near the Tughluqabad fortress was built by Mohammad Tughluq over the grave of his father. Subsequently two other graves namely the grave of Makhduma-i- Jahan and that of Sultan Mohammad Tughluq himself were built in the premise.

According to another school of thought inside the mausoleum are three graves: The central one belongs to Ghiyasudin Tughlaq and the other two are believed to be those of his wife Begum Makhduma-i-Jahan and his second son Mahmud Khan, who died with him under the pavilion.


Tomb of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq


Muhammad bin Tughluq and Ibn Batuta

4. Khudavandzada-Was the name of one of the Sisters of Muhammad bin Tughluq

A plot was formed in 1358 against the life of Firuz. His cousin. Khudavandzada and her husband arranged that the king should be assassinated by armed men on the occasion of the visit of the Sultan to their house.

However, the plot was frustrated by her son Davar Malik who was not in sympathy with the stepfather. He indicated to the Sultan by sings that his Life was in danger and thus caused him to leave before arrangements for his assassination were complete.

On returning to his palace, the Sultan ordered troops to surround the house and the men who would have murdered, the Sultan were arrested. Instead of hanging Khudavandzada, she was merely imprisoned and her wealth was confiscated. Her husband was also banished.

5. Bibi Raasti, the daughter of Sultan Mohammad Tughluq

6. Ladies of Timur’s Harem (Timur, Tarmashirin Khan, Emir Timur)had gone to see ” Qasr-i-Hazaar Sutoon”.



(From Humayun nama-Gulbadan Begum)




7. Buwā Begam-Mother of Sultān Ibrāhīm Lōdī After Ibrahim Lodhi;s death she was taken in Babar’s harem. She at¬tempted to poison Bābar in December, 1526. She was de¬ported from India, and that on her enforced journey to Kābul she drowned herself in the Indus.

8. Aq Begam Mīrān-shāhī-Āq Begam was a daughter of Abū-sa’īd Mīrān-shāhī and Khadīja. She was one of the several paternal aunts of Bābar who went to India at his invitation.She reached Āgra in October, 1528. She was probably present at Bābar’s death-bed.

9. Ātūn māmā-Maid of Bābar’s mother, Qutluq-nigār Khānam.

10. Khanzada Begum (1478–1545) a Timurid princess, elder sister of Emperor Babur (5 years elder). She was married thrice. Her husbands:

1. Shaybani Khan Uzbek

2. Sayyid Hada

3. Mahdi Khwaja

11. Fakhru-n-nisā-She was a daughter of Bābar and ‘Āyisha-sultān, and his first child, born when he was nineteen. She died when about a month old.

12. abība-sultān Begam Arghūn– mother of Bābar’s wife, Ma’ṣūma. Bābar gave her a name of affection, “Yanga”.




13. Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum (19 years younger to Humayun) Mother of Akbar


Hamida Banu Begum

14. Bega Begum aka Haji begum w/o Humayun-was also captured by Sher Shah Suri but she was a relative of babar and hence she may have been returned back with respect to Humayun.

15. Shaad Bibi-w/o Humayun-Sent back by Sher Shah Suri, no kids.

16. Chand Bibi-w/o Humayun-7 months pregnant and presumed dead in attack by Chausa.

17. Gunwar Bibi-w/o Humayun-Mother of Bakshi Bano.

18. Najib al nissa Begum-w/o Humayun-Mother of Baqt al nissa who lived with Mirza Hakim and supported him and died in 1608.

19. Machchuk Bibi-Mother of Mirza Hakim and Fakhru-n-nisā’ Begam Mīrān-shāhī who was wife of Abul Mali. Māh-chūchak Begam. She married Humāyūn in 1546. She had two sons, Muḥammad Hakīm (born 960H.—1553) and Farrūkh-fāl. Gul-badan says she had four daughters and then, with discrepancy frequently found in her writings, names three: Bakht-nisā’, Sakīna-bānū, and Amīna¬bānū. The name of the best-known of her girls, Fakhru-n-nisā’, is omitted. She was Sister of Bairām Oghlān and of Farīdūn Khān Kābulī.
She was murdered by Shāh Abū’l-ma’ālī in Kābul in 1564.

20. Gul-barg Begam Barlās-She married, first, Mīr Shāh Ḥusain Arghūn, in 930H. (1524). The alliance was not happy and a separation took place. She appears to have remarried Humāyūn at some time before the defeat at Chausa (1539). She was with him subse­quently in Sind, and from there went with Sultānam to Makka previous to 1543. She was buried in Dihlī.

21. Amina Begam Miran-shahi-Daughter of Humayun and Mah-chuchak.

22. Bakhtu-n-nisa’ Begam-She was a daughter of Humāyūn and Māh-chūchak.

23. Sakīna-bānū Begam Mīrān-shāhī-Daughter of Humāyūn and Māh-chūchak; wife of Shāh Ghāzī Khān, son of Naqīb Khān Qazwīnī, a personal friend of Akbar.

24. Bakhshī-bānū Begam-She was a daughter of Humāyūn and of Gūnwar Bībī,when ten years old, she was betrothed by her father to Ibrāhīm, son of Sulaimān and Ḥaram. Ibrāhīm (b. 1534) was six years older than Bakhshī-bānū, and he was killed in 1560, leaving her a widow of twenty. In the same year she was given in marriage by Akbar to Mīrzā Sharafu-d-dīn Ḥusain Aḥrārī.

25. Aqiqa Sultan 8 year old daughter of Humayun and Bega Begum and Sister of Akbarshe was lost at Chausa on June 27th, 1539.

26. Jahān-sultān Begam– Probably a child of Humāyūn. She died in Kābul, aged two in 1547.

27. Māh-afroz Begam-She was a wife of Kāmrān and mother of Ḥājī Begam. Two of Kāmrān’s wives are not known by their personal names, Hazāra Begam and the daughter of Uncle ‘Alī Mīrzā Begchik. Māh-afroz may be one of these.

28. Lād-malik Turkomān-Wife of (1) Tāj Khān Sarangkhānī and (2) of Shīr Khān Sūr (1528-29).




29. Akbar married Heera Kumari (Mariam Zamani, mother of Jahangir).


30. Ruqaiya Begam Mīrān-shāhī-Daughter of Hindāl; first wife of Akbar; she died Jumāda I. 7th, 1035H. (January 19th, 1626), at the age of eighty-four. She had no children of her own, and she brought up Shāh-jahān. Mihru-n-nisā’ (Nūr-jahān) lived ‘unnoticed and rejected’ with her after the death of Shīr-afkan.


Ruqaiya Begam

31. Salima Sultan Begum: After the murder of Bairām in 968H. Salīma-sultan was married by Akbar. She was probably a few years his senior.


Salima Sultan Begum

33. Māham anaga– Nurse of Akbar; wife of Nadīm kūka; mother of i) Bāqī and ii) Adham kūkas. Cf. iii) Bābū āghā.


Māham anaga with Akbar

34. Gul-barg, or – iar, or -rang, or -rukh Mīrān-shāhī– Daughter of Babar and mother of Salīma-sultān Begam (Wife of Akbar/Bairam Khan).

35. Gul-rukh Begam Mīrān-shāhī– Daughter of Kāmrān Mīrzā; wife of Ibrāhīm Ḥusain Mīrzā Bāyqrā; mother of Muzaffar Ḥusain who married Sultān Khānam, Akbar’s eldest daughter, and of Nūru-n-nisā’ who became a wife of Salīm (the Emperor Jahāngīr).

36. Fakhru-n-nisā’ anaga and māmā-Mother of Nadīm kūka; mother-in-law of his wife, Māham anaga.

(Humayun nama-Gulbadan Begum)



Jahangir and Noor Jahan

37. The list of Jehangir’s 15 wives. He had around 18- 20 wives

a. Man Bai – daughter of Bhagwan Das

b. Sahib Jamal daughter of Khwaja Hassan

c. A niece of Sahib Jamal

d. Jagat Gosain daughter of Mota Raja

e. A daughter of Rai Singh of Bikaner

f. Rajkumari Karmasi daughter of Raja Rao Keshav Rathore

g. Jagat Singh daughter of Amer

h. A daughter of Rawal Bhim brother of Raja Rai Kalyan Mal of Jaisalmer

i. Kanwal Rani daughter of King of Tibet

j. A daughter of Ram Chandra Bundela

k. Nur Unnisa Begum sister of Muzaffar Hussain

l. Sahila Banu daughter of Qasim Khan

m. A daughter of Mubaraq Chak of Kashmir

n. Nur Jahan


Nur Jahan

38. Nur Jahan-When Mahabat Khan took Jehangir/Shariyar/Dara Sikoh/Aurangzeb, Nur Jahan escaped and joined her daughter Ladli and her granddaughter on other side of river. Then Nur Jahan commanded a mughal force to rescue Jehangir/Shariyar etc. The attack failed and hence Nur Jahan surrendered with her daughter/granddaughter to Mahabat Khan. Mahabat Khan took Jehangir/Shariyar/Dara Sikoh/Aurangzeb hostage in Lahore in 1626.


Article compiled from various sources and also Humayun-Namah-By Gulbadan Begum

Posted in Old Historical Records | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment